Product
ORTON temperature measuring cone
Acting as the agent of thermal insulation materials and heating elements for high temperature kilns in Germany, JFCC temperature measuring blocks in Japan, FERRO temperature measuring rings in the United States, Bullers temperature measuring rings and coins in the United Kingdom, as well as Private label 1800 ℃ high temperature ceramic fiber binder
Classification:
Keywords： temperature measuring materials, refractory materials, heating materials
Equivalent temperature of temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) (°C)  
Temperature cone number 
Selfsupporting temperature cone (pyramidal cone) height 1 3/4" 
Large temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)  Small temperature cone height 15/16" 

usually  iron free  usually  iron free  usually  
Heating rate (℃/hour)  Heating rate (℃/hour)  
15  60  150  15  60  150  60  150  60  150  300  
022  565  586  590  630  
021  580  600  617  643  
020  607  626  638  666  
019  656  678  695  676  693  723  
018  686  715  734  712  732  752  
017  705  738  763  736  761  784  
016  742  772  796  769  794  825  
015  750  791  818  788  816  843  
014  757  807  838  807  836  870  
013  807  837  861  837  859  880  
012  843  861  882  858  880  900  
011  857  875  894  873  892  915  
010  891  903  915  871  886  893  898  913  884  891  919 
09  907  920  930  899  919  928  917  928  917  926  955 
08  922  942  956  924  946  957  942  954  945  955  983 
07  962  976  987  953  971  982  973  985  970  980  1008 
06  981  998  1013  969  991  998  995  1011  991  996  1023 
05½  1004  1015  1025  990  1012  1021  1012  1023  1011  1020  1043 
05  1021  1031  1044  1013  1037  1046  1030  1046  1032  1044  1062 
04  1046  1063  1077  1043  1061  1069  1060  1070  1060  1067  1098 
03  1071  1086  1104  1066  1088  1093  1086  1101  1087  1091  1131 
02  1078  1102  1122  1084  1105  1115  1101  1120  1102  1113  1148 
01  1093  1119  1138  1101  1123  1134  1117  1137  1122  1132  1178 
1  1109  1137  1154  1119  1139  1148  1136  1154  1137  1146  1184 
2  1112  1142  1164  1142  1162  1190  
3  1115  1152  1170  1130  1154  1162  1152  1168  1151  1160  1196 
4  1141  1162  1183  1160  1181  1209  
5  1159  1186  1207  1184  1205  1221  
5½  1167  1203  1225  
6  1185  1222  1243  1220  1241  1255  
7  1201  1239  1257  1237  1255  1264  
8  1211  1249  1271  1247  1269  1300  
9  1224  1260  1280  1257  1278  1317  
10  1251  1285  1305  1282  1303  1330  
11  1272  1294  1315  1293  1312  1336  
12  1285  1306  1326  1304  1326  1355  
13  1310  1331  1348  1321*  1346*  
13½  1352  1367  
14  1351  1365  1384  1388*  1366*  
14½  1386  1409  
15  1417  1428  1424  1431  
15½  1436  1445  
16  1457  1475  1455  1473  
17  1479  1487  1477  1485  
18  1502  1508  1500  1506  
19  1522  1530  1520  1528  
20  1544  1551  1542  1549  
21  1566  1571  1564  1569  
23  1588  1592  1586  1590  
26  1589  1605  
27  1614  1627  
28  1619  1633  
29  1624  1645  
30  1636  1654  
31  1661  1679  
31½  1684  1698  
32  1706  1717  
32½  1718  1730  
33  1732  1741  
34  1757  1759  
35  1784  1784  
36  1796  1796  
37  1820  1820  
38  1850  1850  
39  1865  1865  
40  1885  1885  
41  1970  1970  
42  2015  2015 
The final bending position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) can be measured using an angle template. The starting position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bending is 8 °, and the final position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is 90 ° or even larger.
Temperature and time, and sometimes even the atmosphere of the kiln can affect the final bending position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Generally speaking, temperature has the greatest impact on the bending angle of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). The measured temperature is the equilibrium temperature, as actual firing conditions may undergo some changes.
When the glass in the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) has sufficient fluidity, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends; The temperature rise causes the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to bend faster; Similarly, changes in other factors can also affect the viscosity of glass, such as glass crystallization or changes in atmosphere, which can alter the bending performance of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones).
The deformation of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) will accelerate as the process progresses. In the early stages of bending, a 10 ° bending at a heating rate of 60 ℃/hour represents a temperature change of 5 ℃; In the later stage of heating up, a 10 ° bend only represents a change in temperature of 1 ℃.
Temperature measuring cone for industrial use (temperature measuring triangular cone)
The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) widely used in kilns worldwide ensures that the firing process of users' kilns is under their own control. The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) measures the firing process, which is a comprehensive effect of temperature and time. The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) provides users with intuitive assurance of the firing process, ensuring that the firing process is consistent every day. Our goal is to minimize waste, ensure maximum output, and ensure maximum profit. Orton's temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) can help you achieve your goals.
Typical uses of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones)
Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone) O22 to O11 
Used in the following firing processes: fusing, embossing and annealing of outer glazes, enamel and glass. Temperature Range: 10901550°F ( 590850°C ).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) O10 to 3 
A series of pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones) (red, ironcontaining pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones)) and ironfree pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones) suitable for reducing atmospheres. These temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are used for firing ceramics, tiles, glazes and some other structural ceramic products. Temperature Range: 16002150°F ( 8901170°C ).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) 4 to 12 
For firing porcelain, floor tiles, ceramics, and other refractory materials in the temperature range: 21752345°F ( 11801340°C ).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) 13 to 42 
Used for firing industrial ceramics up to 3659°F ( 2015°C ).

Refer to the equivalent temperature of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) at different heating rates
Use of temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
In use, when placing products in the kiln, the standard temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is placed next to the product; If the purpose of measuring with a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is to measure the temperature difference between the top bottom and the edge edge, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) must be placed on the entire kiln car. If the temperature is uniform and the purpose is to compare each car and furnace, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) must be placed in the same position on the kiln car; After firing, measure the bending angle of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone).A better method is to use a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) with a bending angle greater than 20 ° but must be less than 100 °. For most quality control purposes, measuring the bending angle of a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) with a temperature deviation of within 5 ℃ is sufficient. The table provided by Orton can convert bending angles into temperatures. The following points should be noted:
When users choose a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) that is suitable for their own kiln, they must go through experiments in advance to find the suitable temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) for this kiln.
The larger the cone number of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), the higher the bending aging temperature. According to safety requirements, three adjacent cone numbers are placed each time as a group, and the middle cone number is the aging temperature required for sintering in the kiln.
When the sintering is completed, the intuitive reflection of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is: the low number temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is fully bent as a warning; The middle temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is bent down by about 90 degrees (can be customized) to measure the aging temperature; The high temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is slightly bent as an indicator.
Why use a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)?
The application of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) in ceramic firing has been over 100 years, as they can determine when the firing is complete, whether the kiln provides sufficient heat to ensure the maturation of the ceramic, whether there are temperature differences in the kiln, or whether there are problems during the firing process.
What is a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)?
The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is a cone carefully configured with over 100 components. The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends within a relatively small temperature range, and the final bending position is a measure of the heat absorbed by the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). We usually use the number of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) as the heat representation of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). The lowest temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) has the number O22, while the highest heat measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) has the number 42.The initial number of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is 1 to 20, and O placed in front of the number indicates a lower temperature. Therefore, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) that is lower than the O1 temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is O2, This continues until O22.
Bending of temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Temperature, time, and atmosphere can affect the final bending position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Of course, temperature is a major factor, and the temperature we refer to is the aging temperature, as the actual firing conditions vary. Using the chart provided by Orton and knowing the heating rate, the aging temperature can be determined based on the final bending position of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). The standard deviation of the bending angle of the Orton temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone) is 2.4 °, which is equivalent to a standard deviation of only 2 ° C.
How to use a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)?
The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) serves as evidence and is placed on the kiln frame near ceramic products or near the "Kiln Sitter". The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends during the formation and softening of glass, and the composition and quantity of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) determine when and how the glass is formed. It must be noted that the weight of the sensing rod in the kiln monitor causes the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) inside the "kiln monitor" to bend, and changes in weight can affect the bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone).The bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is due to the effect of gravity, so the height and angle of the base are very important. The higher the height or more severe the inclination of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), the greater the gravity on the bending, and the earlier the bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). For this reason, Orton developed a temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone), which fixes the height and inclination angle of the temperature measuring cone. Generally, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends within 1525 minutes. The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends slowly at the beginning,but once the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends past the midpoint, it bends very quickly; When the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) reaches the base, the firing is considered complete; Anyway, the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) reaches the base and the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is at the 4 o'clock position. The difference between them is very small, and the impact on the firing results is very small.the firing is considered complete; Anyway, the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) reaches the base and the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is at the 4 o'clock position. The difference between them is very small, and the impact on the firing results is very small.the firing is considered complete; Anyway, the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) reaches the base and the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is at the 4 o'clock position. The difference between them is very small, and the impact on the firing results is very small.
Why use a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)?
Firing ceramics is very similar to baking, except that the firing temperature of ceramics is relatively high. Ceramics can be fired within a certain temperature range, with some ceramic products having a wider firing range and others within a narrower firing range. Burning at lower temperatures takes a longer time, just like roasting a turkey, because for ceramic products, it is necessary to ensure a certain amount of time to absorb enough heat. We refer to the heat absorbed by ceramics as "heat". If the heat is consistent during different firing processes, the resulting ceramic products should be the same. Even if the temperature of a firing process is high, the time is short; Another firing process has a low temperature but a long firing time. Since temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) measure heat,all manufacturers will recommend what to use for their products
Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) evaluation of kiln
Most kilns have temperature differences between the top and bottom, and the magnitude of the temperature difference depends on the design of the kiln, the service life of the heating resistor, and the placement and distribution of ceramic products in the kiln. Generally speaking, there is a significant temperature difference in kilns. Place the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) on the bottom, middle, and top racks to determine how much temperature difference there is during the firing process. After firing, carefully observe the condition of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone): if the guide cone is only half bent on the bottom rack, it indicates that the temperature during ceramic firing is half a degree lower; If the guide cone on the top frame is bent by half,it indicates that the firing process has increased by half the heat, but there is a temperature difference between the top and bottom temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones). If you notice a difference, changing the placement of ceramic products to reduce this temperature difference and adding a downward ventilation will also balance the temperature inside the kiln.
Check the performance of the Kiln Sitter
When the small temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) receives enough heat below the sensing rod and is completely bent, the "kiln monitor" will cut off the power supply to the kiln. The bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is caused by the gravity effect of the sensing rod. As the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) in the "kiln monitor" is placed on the kiln wall (near the heating element), it receives higher heat than the evidence temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), which can cut off the power supply of the kiln earlier, Use a 3temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) system near the "kiln monitor" to measure the difference between the "kiln monitor" and the kiln frame.
Check the performance of the temperature controller
The electronic temperature controller increases the temperature of the kiln to the required temperature, and the temperature controller tests the temperature obtained through a thermocouple buried in a fireresistant wall. A temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) with a base can confirm whether the temperature controller is correctly controlled. Place the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) near the thermocouple, and after firing, check if the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is completely bent. Orton guarantees the temperature controller, however, we still recommend that users place a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) during each firing process to ensure that the kiln reaches the required temperature.Temperature controllers rely on correct temperature measurement and appropriate heating procedures. Most temperature controllers use Ktype thermocouples, which may not provide a correct temperature value and may change over time after use.
Evidence temperature measuring cone with base (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Orton recommends evidence temperature measuring cones with bases (temperature measuring triangular cones) to users, as temperature measuring cones with bases (temperature measuring triangular cones) are convenient to use and have good repeatability in testing. Many users only use a temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone) to check the changes in the kiln during each firing. It is not necessary to use a 3temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) system to check the temperature changes in the kiln. When half of the temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cone) in the kiln show different behavior, it indicates that there is a problem in the kiln and needs to be solved. In this way, the problem can be solved in a timely manner to avoid
retention time
The retention time can also affect the deformation or bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Generally speaking, during the firing process, the temperature is raised to an equilibrium temperature, and then the temperature must be raised by one degree of heat after being left at that temperature for 12 hours; After staying for 46 hours, it is necessary to increase the heat of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) by two degrees; Staying for 1620 hours requires increasing the heat of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) by three degrees.
Kiln atmosphere
Ceramic experts know that the kiln atmosphere has a great impact on the reaction of ceramics, and it also has a significant impact on the performance of ceramics. Since the deformation and bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is caused by Thermochemistry reaction, it can be expected that the atmosphere will affect the deformation and bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone).
Fortunately, the conditions that affect the performance of ceramics are related to the deformation and bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Therefore, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) can be used as an effective tool to evaluate the temperature distribution in the kiln firing area. The kiln environment conditions that affect the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) mainly include:
The content of oxidation and reduction atmosphere;
The presence of sulfur;
The presence of water vapor;
The impact of flames;
Radiation effects on nearby hotter or colder surfaces;
The airflow in the kiln.
The reducing atmosphere has a negative effect on the deformation of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), and the lowtemperature temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is particularly sensitive to the reducing atmosphere due to its metal composition. In addition, in a reducing atmosphere, the organic adhesive will not be completely oxidized, resulting in the expansion and blackening of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Once expanded, it will change the deformation characteristics of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). The red temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) (i.e.the temperature measuring cone containing iron oxide (temperature measuring triangular cone) O10 to 3) also undergoes a reverse reaction due to the presence of a reducing atmosphere. After firing, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) will turn green or even black.
Temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangles) without lead and iron (temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangles) O19 to O11, "iron free" temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangles) O10 to 3 and 4 to 42) can be used in a reducing atmosphere. Before the reducing atmosphere, the organic adhesive in the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangles) can be completely oxidized, Heating the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) in the air to 800850 ° F can completely burn the organic adhesive in the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone).PCE temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) or pre calcined temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) have been successfully applied in neutral or reducing atmospheres.
Compared to the oxidizing atmosphere, temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) and most ceramics mature faster in the reducing atmosphere, or in other words, they can mature ceramic products at lower temperatures. Pre calcined temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) can change the deformation characteristics of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones), so users who use pre calcined temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) must establish their own monitoring programs.
For "switching" kilns (i.e. alternating oxidation and reduction atmospheres)The improved iron free temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), O10 to 3, also does not contain boron oxides, so there will be no "scaling" phenomenon.
The presence of water vapor can also affect the performance of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) when the water vapor content is relatively high. In fact, even a small amount of water vapor can cause the deformation and bending temperature of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to advance, because during the firing process, water vapor will diffuse into the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), Effects of Atmospheres in Firing Ceramics  C.J. Koenig Published by the Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, Ohio, and the Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, California). This is the main reason why temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) exhibit different characteristics in electric kilns and open gas kilns.Although the content of water vapor in the combustion furnace is as high as 19%, it is not necessary to remove the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) because the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) and ceramic products have similar behavior, that is, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) still has guiding significance for ceramic products.the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) still has guiding significance for ceramic products.the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) still has guiding significance for ceramic products.
Other kiln conditions
Dust generated by solid fuel will fall on the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone), which will also affect the deformation and bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone) to a certain extent. For example, salt vapor, Lead compounds and Zinc compounds will produce a surface glaze on the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone), which may or may not affect the performance of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone).
Flame can cause the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle) to melt. If possible, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle) should be avoided from being placed at the flame or at the vent.
The radiation from a very hot surface, or the placement of a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) near a cold surface, can also affect the deformation and bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Therefore, the conditions for placing the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) should be consistent with those of ceramic products.
Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) number and related information
The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) manufactured by Orton is numbered from O22 to 42. O22 is the lowest melting point temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) that requires the least amount of heat to undergo deformation or bending. During the firing process, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) softens and melts when heated. Due to the effect of gravity, the top of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends. The bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) indicates that the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) and the ceramic have received a certain amount of heat. Generally speaking,it takes 1520 minutes for the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to fully bend after starting to bend. The higher the number of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), The more heat is needed.
primary
Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone) O22 to O11 
Used in the following firing processes: fusing, embossing and annealing of outer glazes, enamel and glass. Temperature Range: 10901550°F (590850°C).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) O10 to 3 
A series of pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones) (red, ironcontaining pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones)) and ironfree pyrometer cones (pyrometer cones) suitable for reducing atmospheres. These temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are used for firing ceramics, tiles, glazes and some other structural ceramic products. Temperature Range: 16002150°F (8901170°C).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) 4 to 12 
For firing porcelain, floor tiles, ceramics, and other refractory materials in the temperature range: 21752345°F (11801340°C).

Temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) 13 to 42 
Used for firing industrial ceramics up to 3659°F (2015°C

The temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) measures the heat, indicating the heat absorbed by the ceramic above the threshold temperature. The threshold temperature refers to the temperature at which the sintering performance of a product begins to change, and the bending performance is related to temperature. Each temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) has a firing range where the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is completely bent. Generally speaking, the faster the firing speed, the higher the temperature at which the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends; On the contrary, the slower the firing speed of the kiln,the lower the temperature at which the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) bends; The position of 6 o'clock (90 ° angle) is considered the endpoint of the bending of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangle cone).
Selection method of temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Whenever possible, use a temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone) or a large temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
The temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone) provides consistent results and good repeatability due to its fixed base height and angle.
Consider temperature range
The deformation of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is a comprehensive effect of time and temperature, and the expected temperature range determines the number of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) and the type of temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to be used. For high temperatures, large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) or PCE temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are required; The temperature measuring cone with a base (temperature measuring triangular cone) is suitable for use at low and moderate temperatures; Only small temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) or "Kiln Sitter" are available.
The heating rate is a key factor when selecting a temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
The number of each temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is based on a specific heating rate. For fast heating rates, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) must be heated to a higher temperature before the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is deformed and bent.
The height of the firing chamber or the space of the kiln are also factors that determine the number of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones).
Above the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) No. 26, a large temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) must be used, unless a PCE temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) is used for testing or quality control.
In a neutral or reducing atmosphere?
In a neutral or reducing atmosphere, the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) contains two substances that affect the performance of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone). Organic adhesive is added to the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to ensure sufficient strength during transportation and processing. This adhesive burns completely when heated to 800 ° F in air or oxidizing atmosphere; If there is no air, only pre oxidized temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) can be used. In addition, some temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) contain iron oxides. In a reducing atmosphere, iron oxides become a fluid,causing the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) to bend earlier. In this case, a non iron temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) must be used to avoid this problem.
Types of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones)
Large temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Conventional large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones)  These are ordinary temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) widely used as reference cones to monitor the process and conditions of kilns. Large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are available in sizes O19 to O1, 1 to 42, with O10 to O1 and 1 and 3 containing iron oxides.
All temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) contain organic adhesives.
Iron free large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones)  Unlike ordinary large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones), these temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) do not contain iron oxides. These temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) can be used for reducing atmosphere conditions, O4 to O1, as well as No.1 and No.3 can also be used in sulfur atmospheres. Iron free temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are O10 to O1, as well as No.1 and No.3.
Temperature measuring cone with base (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Conventional temperature measuring cone with base (temperature measuring triangular cone)  As evidence cone, temperature measuring cone with base (temperature measuring triangular cone) is the most accurate and easiest to operate. Only Orton provides users with this temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), which does not require a bracket for the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) because it has its own base, so the height and angle of the temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) are always the same. All temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) contain organic adhesives.
The numbers of temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) with bases are O22 to O1, and the numbers 1 to 23 include those half size temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones).
Iron free temperature measuring cones with a base (temperature measuring triangular cones)  Unlike conventional temperature measuring cones with a base (temperature measuring triangular cones), they do not contain iron oxides and can be used for reducing atmospheres. Temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) O4 to O1, as well as No.1 and No.3, can also be used in sulfur atmospheres.
Small temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone)
Small conventional temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones)  These temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) are considered "lowlevel" temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) and are only used for Dawson's "Kiln Sitter". If the kiln space is relatively small, a small temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone) can also be used as a reference cone; Compared to the deformation and bending of large temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) or temperature measuring cones with bases (temperature measuring triangular cones), the deformation and bending temperature of small temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) is higher and should be carefully placed.
Small temperature measuring cone (temperature measuring triangular cone), O22 to O1 and 1 to 20; Among them, O10 to O1 and No.1 to No.3 contain iron oxides. All temperature measuring cones (temperature measuring triangular cones) contain organic adhesives.
Temperature measuring rod
Conventional temperature measuring rod  Orton's temperature measuring rod is used in Dawson's "kiln monitor". Due to its unique shape, it ensures consistent placement and does not alter the firing process.
The numbers of temperature measuring rods O22 to O1 and 1 to 10; O10 to O1, as well as No.1 and No.3 containing iron oxides, all
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